Numer 29 / 2010


Working Papers Institute of International Business University of Gdansk No 29



Tegoroczne wydanie kolejnego Zeszytu Naukowego Instytutu Handlu Zagranicznego Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego zbiega się z 40-leciem utworzenia Instytutu, który powstał wraz z powołaniem do życia Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego w 1970 r.


Niniejsza publikacja ma charakter szczególny ponieważ część merytoryczną 29-edycji poprzedza rys biograficzny Pani prof. zw. dr hab. Anny Barbary Kisiel-Łowczyc, która obchodzi jubileusz swojej pełnej sukcesów pracy naukowo-badawczej i dydaktycznej, ważnej dla Uniwersytetu, Wydziału ekonomicznego, a szczególnie dla rozwoju Instytutu Handlu Zagranicznego i jego młodej kadry.


Redaktor naukowy: Hanna Treder

Recenzent: Halina Nakoniezna-Kisiel

Projekt okładki: Wojtek Traczyk

Redakcja: Maria Mosiewicz

Komitet Redakcyjny Prac i Materiałów Instytutu Handlu Zagranicznego Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego: 

Danuta Marciniak-Neider, Janusz Neider, Ewa Oziewicz

Wydawca: Fundacja Rozwoju Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Sopot 2010.


Spis artykułów (abstrakty):


Anna Barbara Kisiel-Łowczyc,

Korporacje transnarodowe wobec kryzysu ekonomicznego

Transnational Corporations in the face of economical crisis


Paper analyses the global economic crisis' impact on the financial and non - fi¬nancial TNCs' in years 2006 till 2010, focusing on their reactions and counteractions.


Krystyna Żołądkiewicz,

Banany na wokandzie WTO

The Banana WTO Dispute Settlement


On December 15, 2009 Pascal Lamy announced that the European Union, the United States and Latin America signed comprehensive agreement ending long-standing banana dispute. It was one of the longest running disputes in the history of multilateral trading system. The world banana market was dominated by EU import restrictions. This policy was focused on aid for ACP banana producing countries but in reality it was reaching target in rather small proportion. It was done at the expense of efficient growers in Latin America being non preferred suppliers. Trade restrictions imposed also costs on EU consumers with no much efficiency for ACP countries. There was also another dimension of the issue, that lengthy negotiations, consultations, and legal examinations showed that panels were a difficult problem. On the other hand, however, the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), the Appellate Body (AB), and special arbitrators proved that all these agencies play an important role and may find a solution when WTO members exhibit good will and spirit of compromise.


Tomasz Michałowski,

Integracja gospodarcza w ramach COMESA jako przykład procesów integracyjnych w Afryce

Economic integration within COMESA as an example of integration processes in Africa


The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is the largest regional economic community in Africa which consists of 19 member states with total population of more than 400 million.

The main instruments for promoting and deepening the economic integration under COMESA are trade and investment. In 2000 the COMESA free trade area was launched. Initially it covered nine member states but now (April 2010) it encompasses fourteen countries. In June 2009 at the 13th Summit of COMESA Heads of State and Government COMESA Customs Union was launched. Two years earlier, in 2007, COMESA adopted an agreement for a Common Investment Area, which envisages a free investment area by 2010. These are very important steps in the process of building the common market and the eventual creation of the monetary union.


Tomasz Bieliński,

Szanse i zagrożenia dla rozwoju krajów Rady Współpracy Państw Zatoki

Chances and threats for the development of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

Gulf Cooperation Council is one of the fastest growing economy in the world. During the years 2000-2008 average GDP growth of the countries integrated in GCC was 5,29%, much more than other developed regions like Euro Zone or USA.

This article analyses chances and threats for the future of the GCC especially in the fields of oil production and reserves, investment, politics, changes of the population, immigration and finally the situation of the public finance.


Eugeniusz Gostomski,

Głód jako problem globalny

Famine in the World as a global problem


This paper explores the problem of famine in the world. People die from hunger as they are not able to produce food for themselves, as well as they can not afford top buy it. 8560 million people face famine every day, whereas for 8-9 million people lack of nutrition means death. The rise of prices within the recent years has caused starvation of 100 million people. What seems to be obvious, market methods are not sufficient for solving the problem of famine. It is essential to support development of small family farms, which meet the needs of local communities. What is more, international help for deprived societies should be intensified. In addition, micro credit could be used as a tool to stimulate economic development,. The action taken by International Monetary Fund and World Bank to diminish famine turned out to be insufficient.


Katarzyna Bałandynowicz-Panfil,

Społeczno-ekonomiczne konsekwencje starzenia się społeczeństw

The socio-economic consequences of an ageing of societies


The ageing of society process is one of the most significant and dynamic demo-graphic challenges in modern world. The changes make an impact on each level of social and economical areas of a state activity.

The aim of this paper is to investigate some main consequences caused by ageing of society. Own classification of them is important issue of the paper. Division on economic and non-economic consequences was made. Political, social, cultural and technological effects were specified within the second described group. The knowledge about those consequences gives an opportunity to use possibilities of demo-graphic changes properly and to reduce upcoming threats, what makes the consideration on this issue more valuable.


Joanna Bednarz,

Zasoby jako podstawa potencjału konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstwa

Resources as the basis for an enterprise's competitiveness potential


Competitiveness potential, i.e. unique tangible and intangible resources possessed by an enterprise or those which it makes use of, is one of the fundamental sources of efficient competing of the enterprise on the market. From the point of view of economic units, the most valuable are rare resources, difficult to be imitated or substituted for, which determine the enterprise performance as well as those which when appropriately managed and incorporated into the whole system of resources, contribute to the enterprise competitive advantage on the market. These resources should not be treated as separate elements but they should constitute a coherent sys¬tem (a chain of values) together with relations taking place between them. Only then they may build values seen by various groups of market entities and by the customers in particular. The consequence of this process is the growth of the enterprise market value.


Sylwia Pangsy-Kania,

Inwestycje zagraniczne w Polsce w sektorach high-tech a perspektywiczne kierunki badań przy wykorzystaniu metodyki foresight

Foreign investments in the Polish high-tech sectors and perspective research direction based on foresight methodology


High-tech sector plays very important role in the process of improvement of the competitiveness. In Poland its participation is still very low (4 % of sold production).

The increasing importance of innovation causes steadily increasing demand for direct investments in high-tech sector. In Poland, meanwhile, low-tech and medium-low tech are majority. At the same time the priority research in Poland, based on fore-sight methodology, are for example biotechnology and nanotechnology. The article tries to answer the question if these processes are compatible and what Poland should do to increase the flow of direct investments in high-tech sector.


Renata Orłowska,

Wpływ globalnego kryzysu finansowego na rozmiary polskiej emigracji zarobkowej i rynek pracy w Polsce

Impact of the global financial crisis on the scale emigration and the labor market in Poland


Typically, the effect of each economic crisis is the growing of unemployment rate, which generally favors the migration processes. The global economic crisis caused significant changes on world markets, including the labor market. Intensifying globalization at the turn of the century has contributed to multiply the size of interna¬tional migration. Also in Europe, the dynamics of the labor movement has been substantially revised. Poland, for years a country of net emigration, as a result of the cur-rent economic crisis, as well as rapid development, may become a goal of increased economic migration, which is characteristic of the emerging economies. It is difficult today to judge the quality impact of GFC on the proportions of Polish migration and the labor market, though undoubtedly there is already some changes.


Magdalena Jażdżewska-Gutta,

Polska logistyka w rankingach międzynarodowych

Polish Logistics in International Rankings


The cost of transportation and logistics represents a large proportion of overall cost of business enterprises and entire economy. Therefore, the logistics performance is also an important factor in investment decisions. International rankings including measures of logistics performance in different countries may help in this decision making processes. The rankings allow comparisons and identification of strengths and weaknesses of the country's logistics system in order to introduce its improvement.


The aim of this study is therefore to compare the assessments of logistics per¬formance of Poland in various international rankings and to assess Polish logistics performance compared to other countries in the world and the European Union. The rankings are: Logistics Performance Index and Doing Business 2010 by World Bank, Global Enabling Trade Report and Global Competitiveness Report by World Economic Forum and Liner Shipping Connectivity Index by UNCTAD. The conclusion that can be drawn from these rankings is that Polish logistics performance is rather poor, especially comparing to other countries from the European Union. This may negatively affect investment decisions. However the rankings show also where is the place for improvement.


Monika Szmelter,

Uczestnicy światowego i polskiego rynku walutowego

Participants of the global and Polish currency market


Every three years the Bank for International Settlements together with national central banks conduct a survey on developments in the foreign exchange market. The purpose of it is to obtain statistical information on the liquidity and structure of the market. In 2007 central banks and monetary authorities of 54 countries participated in the survey. These institutions collected data from approximately 1280 entities - the most active institutions in the foreign exchange market (reporting dealers). In the 2007 study, eighteen of the most active banks and branches of credit institutions operating in Poland were surveyed.

Reporting dealers are mainly large commercial and investment banks and securities houses that participate in the inter-dealer market and/or have an active business with large customers, such as large corporate firms, governments and other non-reporting financial institutions. They are institutions that are actively buying and selling currency for their own account and/or in meeting customer demand.

Transactions between reporting dealers are the biggest part in daily turnovers on fx market. Reporting dealers are also active in deals with other financial institutions, such as smaller commercial banks, investment banks and securities houses, and in addition mutual funds, pension funds, hedge funds, currency funds, money market funds, building societies, leasing companies, insurance companies, other financial subsidiaries of corporate firms and central banks. The third group of fx market investors consists of non-financial customers, such as corporates and governments.


Magdalena Markiewicz,

Doświadczenia konsolidacyjne sektora bankowego w Rumunii

Experience of consolidation in the banking sector in Romania


The aim of the article is the description of transformation in the Romanian bank¬ing sector in 1999-2009 implicated by consolidation processes. The banking sector in Romania was perceived for a long time as the weakest and the least developing among the countries from the area of Central and Eastern Europe, accessing to European Union in 2004 and 2007. However, the dynamic proceeding of privatization and consolidation was one of the main determinants of changes in the Romanian banking sector. The biggest consolidation transaction, having background in the privatization process, was the acquisition of Banca Comerciala Romana by the Austrian credit institution, Erste Bank der Oesterreichischen Sparkassen AG (since 2008 named Erste Bank). The consolidation processes involved the essential impact on the dynamic development of the Romanian banking sector, as well as the increase in the competitiveness level and the quality of banking products and services.