NCN project OPUS

Factors determining tourists’ transport-mode choices in ten European capitals


Project Manager: dr hab. Piotr Zientara, prof. UG


Executors: dr Magdalena Jażdżewska-Gutta, dr hab. Anna Zamojska, prof. UG, dr hab. Monika Bšk, prof. UG


Project funded by the National Science Centre under the OPUS 31 programme 

Project number: UMO-2021/41/B/HS4/00123.

Project implementation period: 2022-2024


The aim of the project was to examine tourists' motivation to use public transportation in European capitals (including: Amsterdam, Berlin, Brussels, London, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw), identify factors influencing tourists' choice of transportation modes, and compare transportation systems in these cities in the context of sustainable mobility. Data were collected using surveys and service safari technique, which is a form of participant observation. The study was conducted among over 5000 tourists.


In contrast to most previous studies, which were limited to surveying tourists in one city or one country, this project examined the behavior of tourists from different countries in different cities in different countries. This allowed for the identification of not only individual factors determining decisions regarding mode of transportation, but also the significance of conditions related to a specific place and its characteristic transportation system.


Articles published as part of the project:


Zientara, P., Jażdżewska-Gutta, M., Bšk, M., & Zamojska, A. (2024). Examining the use of public transportation by tourists in ten European capitals through the lens of hierarchical leisure constraints theory. Journal of Travel Research.


Conference presentations:

Surrey 2023: Conference “Bringing Hospitality, Tourism, Transport and Events Back for Good”, 5-7 July 2023; Presentation: Constraints theory and tourist mobility choices at the destination. Evidence from ten European capitals.


7th World Research Summit for Hospitality and Tourism, 8-11 December 2023, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, Orlando Florida, USA: Presentation: What Drives Tourists’ Sustainable Mobility at City Destinations? Insights from 10 European Capital Cities.




The research is funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project titled “Factors Determining Tourists’ Transport-Mode Choices in Ten European Capitals”, with the project identification number UMO-2021/41/B/HS4/00123.